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medical terms 

Menopause is a significant phase in a woman's life, marking the end of her reproductive years. Understanding the medical terms associated with this transition can help women navigate the changes more effectively. Here are some key terms every woman should know...

Terms to know


  • Menopause is officially defined as the time when a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months. This marks the end of her menstrual cycles and fertility. It usually occurs between ages 45 and 55 but can vary widely.


  • Perimenopause is the transitional period leading up to menopause, often starting in a woman’s 40s, though it can begin earlier. During perimenopause, estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate, causing irregular menstrual cycles and a variety of symptoms like hot flashes and mood swings.


  • Estrogen is the primary female sex hormone responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle and reproductive system. During menopause, estrogen levels decline significantly, leading to many of the symptoms associated with this phase.


  • Progesterone is another key hormone involved in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Like estrogen, its levels decrease during menopause, contributing to menstrual irregularities and other menopausal symptoms.

Hot Flashes

  • Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, often most intense over the face, neck, and chest, which can cause sweating and discomfort. They are one of the most common symptoms of menopause, affecting about 75% of women.

Night Sweats

  • Night sweats are episodes of excessive sweating during sleep, which can disrupt sleep and lead to insomnia. They are often related to hot flashes and hormonal changes during menopause.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) involves the administration of estrogen or a combination of estrogen and progesterone to alleviate menopausal symptoms. HRT can be effective but also carries potential risks, making it essential to discuss it thoroughly with a healthcare provider.


  • Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weakened bones, increasing the risk of fractures. The decline in estrogen levels during menopause can accelerate bone density loss, making postmenopausal women more susceptible to osteoporosis.

Vaginal Atrophy

  • Vaginal atrophy, also known as atrophic vaginitis, refers to the thinning, drying, and inflammation of the vaginal walls due to decreased estrogen levels. This condition can cause discomfort, itching, and painful intercourse.

Bioidentical Hormones

  • Bioidentical hormones are hormones that are chemically identical to those the human body produces. They are often marketed as a natural alternative to traditional HRT, but their safety and efficacy should be evaluated in consultation with a healthcare provider.


  • Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant compounds that mimic estrogen in the body. Found in foods like soy, flaxseeds, and certain herbs, they may offer some relief from menopausal symptoms, though their effects can vary among individuals.

Bone Density Test

  • A Bone Density Test measures the strength and density of bones, often using a DEXA scan. This test is important for detecting osteoporosis early, especially in postmenopausal women who are at higher risk.

Urogenital Symptoms

  • Urogenital symptoms refer to issues affecting the urinary and genital systems, including urinary incontinence, increased frequency of urination, and vaginal dryness. These symptoms are often due to the decline in estrogen levels.

Choosing the Right Doctor

Selecting the right healthcare provider is crucial for managing menopause. Consider the following types of healthcare professionals:


MD: Medical Doctor

  • An MD is a physician with a traditional medical degree who can diagnose and treat a wide range of health issues. For menopause, they might offer hormone replacement therapy (HRT), prescribe medications, and manage overall health.

DO: Doctor of Osteopathy

  • A DO is similar to an MD but with additional training in the musculoskeletal system and a holistic approach. They can also provide HRT, medications, and emphasize lifestyle changes.

OB/GYN: Obstetrician/Gynecologist

  • An OB/GYN specializes in women's reproductive health, including menopause. They are highly experienced in managing menopause symptoms, conducting pelvic exams, and offering HRT.

ND/NMD: Naturopathic Doctor

  • An ND focuses on natural and holistic treatments. For menopause, they might recommend dietary changes, supplements, herbal remedies, and lifestyle adjustments.

PA: Physician Assistant

  • A Physician Assistant (PA) is a licensed medical professional who practices medicine under the supervision of a physician. PAs can diagnose and treat illnesses, prescribe medications, and develop treatment plans.

NP: Nurse Practitioner

  • NPs are advanced practice registered nurses who can diagnose and treat health conditions, including menopause symptoms. They can prescribe medications, provide HRT, and offer patient education and counseling.

CNM: Certified Nurse Midwife

  • CNMs specialize in women's reproductive health and can manage menopause symptoms, provide counseling, prescribe medications, and offer HRT.

RPh/PharmD: Pharmacist

  • An RPh dispenses medications and can provide advice on medication management, including HRT and over-the-counter remedies for menopause symptoms.


  • RNs provide patient care and support. They can educate women about menopause, assist with symptom management, and offer resources for lifestyle changes.

LCSW/MSW: Social Worker

  • LCSWs provide mental health support. They can help women cope with the emotional aspects of menopause, offer counseling, and connect patients with community resources.

PhD: Doctorate in various fields

  • A PhD in a healthcare-related field might conduct research on menopause, contribute to developing new treatments, and provide education to healthcare professionals and patients.

For specialized care, look for a NAMS Certified Menopause Practitioner (NCMP), indicating expertise in menopause management.

Understanding these terms can empower women to take control of their health during menopause. Regular consultations with healthcare providers and staying informed about the latest treatments and lifestyle changes can help manage symptoms and maintain quality of life during this transition.

for more information and to connect with women also on this journey
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